Twenty latest papers with summaries

​​​​

Andersson ES et al. No association of maternal gestational weight gain with offspring blood pressure and hypertension at age 18 years in male sibling-pairs: A prospective register-based cohort study. PLoS One 2015;10:e121202.
Previous indications that gestational weight gain may lead to higher blood pressure in the children later in their lives was not supported by this study.

Tidligere formodninger om at vægtstigningen under graviditeten kunne medføre blodtryksforhøjelse hos barnet senere i livet fandt ikke støtte i dette studie.

Ajslev TA et al.​ Stable intergenerational associations of childhood overweight during the development of the obesity epidemic. Obesity 2015;23:1279-1287.​
Children of obese parents have a higher probability of becoming obese. The present study observes that this probability has been rather stable during the period 1952-89.

Børn af tykke forældre har højere sandsynlighed for selv at blive tykke. Studiet viste at denne sandsynlig hed stort set har være den samme henover perioden 1952-89.​

Hansen CP et al. Intake of ruminant trans fatty acids, assessed by diet history interview, and changes in measured body size, shape and composition. Pub Health Nutr. 2015 Jun 15 [Epub ahead of print]
Trans fat in meat and dairy products do not influence body weight, shape or composition.

De naturligt forekommende transfedtsyrer i kød og mælkeprodukter påvirker ikke udviklingen i kropsvægt, -form eller sammensætning.​

Hohwü L et al. Prenatal parental separation and body weight, including development of overweight and obesity later in childhood. PLoS One 2015;10:e0119138.
Parental separation before childbirth was associated with higher BMI, and increased risk of overweight and obesity in 9-11-year-old children, likely a so-called foetal programming effect of stress during pregnancy.

Skilsmisse under graviditet bliver fulgt at forøget risiko for overvægt fedme hos barnet, formentligt en slags stress programmering af fosteret.

Hvidtfeldt UA et al. Risk of breast cancer in relation to combined effects of hormone therapy, body mass index, and alcohol use, by hormone-receptor status. Epidemiol. 2015;26:353-361.
Both alcohol intake and hormone therapy increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer, and the effect of hormone therapy risk is particularly high in women who also have a high intake of alcohol.

Både alkoholindtagelse og hormonbehandling øger risikoen for brystkræft efter menopausen, og det viser sig at hormonvirkningerne er særligt stærke hos kvinder, der også har en høj alkoholindtagelse.

Jensen BW et al. Intervention effects on dietary intake among children of mothers with short education - results of the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS). Br J Nutr. 2015;13:963-974.
This school-based intervention showed that positive changes in dietary intake can be made, particularly among children of mothers with short education. As the dietary intake of this sub-group generally differs most from the recommendations, the results of the present study are particularly encouraging.

Denne skolebaserede intervention viste at det er muligt at ændre kostvaner hos indskolingsbørn i positive retning og at interventionseffekterne var stærkest hos børn af mødre med kort uddannelse. Resultaterne er opmuntrende da familier med lav social status ofte har ringe kostvaner og kan være svære at nå med officielle kampagner.

Jensen CB et al.​ Prenatal exposure to vitamin D from fortified margarine and milk and body size at age 7 years. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 8 [Epub ahead of print]Vitam
in D deficiency is c​ommon among Danish pregnant women and may have consequences for both mother and child. We found that extra vitamin D from fortified foods during pregnancy did not influence offspring body size at 7 years.

​Vitamin D mangel er udbredt blandt danske gravide kvinder og dette kan have konsekvenser for både mor og barn. Vi fandt at børn af gravide der fik ekstra vitamin D fra berigede fødevarer havde samme kropsstørrelse ved 7 år som andre børn.

Jensen CB et al. ​Secular trends in seasonal variation in birth weight. Early Hum Dev. 2015;91:361-365.

​The average birth weight shows seasonal fluctuations with a top in the autumn, possibly reflecting sunexposure of the pregnant women and increased vitamin D exposure of the foetus, but during the postwar period, a new late spring top emerged, possibly due to UV light exposure during the winter. During later years, the fluctuations have declined, possibly because of reduced light exposure.​

Den gennemsnitlige fødselsvægt udviser sæsonsvingninger med en efterårstop, muligvis som følge af den gravides udsættelse for sol og dermed vitamin D påvirkning af fosteret, men i årene efter krigen kom en ekstra top sidst på foråret, muligvis som følge af kunstigt lys i vintermånederne. De senere år er sæsonsvingningerne blevet mindre udtalte, måske grundet tilbageholdenhed med lyspåvirkning.

Jensen CB et al.​ No evidence of seasonality of birth for adult type 2 diabetes in Denmark. Diabetologia 2015 Jun 16 [Epub ahead of print]
Seasonal variation in birth weight is not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in adult life. 

Der er ingen sammenhæng mellem sæsonvariation i fødselsvægt og risiko for type 2 diabetes som voksen.     

Koch L, Sørensen TIA.​ Er tiden inde til en genomisk revolution i det danske sundhedsvæsen? II - Opfordring til en udvikling af en ny etisk infrastruktur Ugeskr Læger. [Debat] 2015.

Indførelse af hel-genomsekventering i klinisk praksis skaber en række nye etiske udfordringer og vil kræve en ny etisk infrastruktur.

Lausten-Thomsen U et al​​. Longitudinal changes in C-reactive protein, proform of eosinophil major basic protein, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A during weight changes in obese children. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015;28:393-398.
A group o​f obese children was followed through a 3 month weight loss program, and a through 2 year follow up, where the children gained weight. Three risk factors for heart disease where measured throughout the study, and we found that hs-CRP levels followed the changing levels of obesity, whereas PAPP-A and Pro-MBP showed much higher stability. These results suggest that PAPP-A and Pro-MBP are potential early risk markers for heart disease.   

En gruppe svært overvægtige børn blev fulgt gennem et 3 måneders vægttabsforløb og et 2 årigt opfølgningsforløb, hvor børnene tog på igen. Tre risiko faktorer for hjerte sygdom blev målt igennem hele forløbet. Vi fandt at hs-CRP niveauerne fulgte børnenes vægt ned og op igen, mens PAPP-A og Pro-MBP var meget mere stabile. Disse resultater viser, at PAPP-A og Pro-MBP måske kan bruges som tidlige risiko markører for hjertesygdom.​

​​​Moltke K et al. Psychiatric Emergency Services in Copenhagen 2012: A 27–year psychiatric and demographic follow-up study. Nordic J Psychiat. 2015; 69:459-465.
When compared to data from1985, the frequency of patients in the psychiatric emergency units in Copenhagen 2012 has decreased significantly. Schizophrenia and alcoholism are still the main diagnoses.

Sammenlignet med 1985 er antallet af patienter i de psykiatriske skadestuer i København 2012 faldet signifikant. Skizofreni og alkoholisme er stadig de hyppigste diagnoser.

Most SW et al​. Adoption of the children's obesity clinic's treatment (TCOCT) protocol into another Danish pediatric obesity treatment clinic. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:332. (Open Access).The TCOCT weight loss program for obese children developed at Holbæk hospital, has systematically been implemented at Hillerød hospital, where it, just as in Holbæk, reduced the degree of childhood obesity with acceptable retention rates.

​Vægttabs programmet TCOCT til behandling af overvægtige børn, som er udviklet på Holbæk hospital, er systematisk blevet indført på Hillerød hospital. Hvor det, præcist som i Holbæk, reducerer graden af overvægt med et acceptabelt frafald.

Navas-Carretero S et al. The impact of gender and protein intake on the success of weight maintenance and associated cardiovascular risk benefits, independent of the mode of food provision: The DiOGenes Randomized Trial. Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Mar 31 [Epub ahead of print]
Maintaining weight loss and improvement of the cardiovascular risk factors remains a challenge for overweight people, but relatively high protein contents of the diet, irrespective of whether this is achieved by instructions or provision of food, seems to work better, and especially better in women.

At holde vægten efter et vægttab er stadig en stor udfordring for overvægtige, men det synes lettere med et relativt højt protein indhold i kosten, uanset om det opnås ved vejledning eller forsyning med fødevarer, og især bedre hos kvinder​

Nielsen LA et al​. The influence of familial predisposition to cardiovascular complications upon childhood obesity treatment. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0120177.
The study investigated whether familial predispositions for obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, thromboembolic events and/or dyslipidaemia, influenced the level of obesity and the ability to lose weight in a group of obese children receiving treatment for their obesity. We found that children with type 2 diabetes in the family were more obese at the beginning of treatment , and that girls with familial obesity are better at losing weight during treatment.

​Dette studie undersøgte om familiær disposition for fedme, forhøjet blodtryk, type 2 diabetes, blodpropper og/eller forhøjet kolesterol, påvirker niveauet af fedme og evnen til at tabe sig i en gruppe af svært overvægtige børn under behandling for deres fedme. Vi fandt, at børn med type 2 diabetes i familien var mere overvægtige ved behandlingens start, og vi fandt, at piger med fedme i familien var bedre til at tabe sig under behandlingen.​

Richmond R et al. Exploring possible epigenetic mediation of early life environmental exposures on adiposity and obesity development . Int J Epidemiol. (Review) 2015 May 7. [Epub ahead of print]​
Environmental exposures in early life, possible before birth or even before conception may leave epigenetic marks that influence the later risk of development of obesity.​

Ydre påvirkninger i barnets tidlige liv, måske før fødslen eller endda før befrugtningen synes at sætte sig spor i arvemassen, der kan dukke op senere som øget tendens til fedme.

Silventoinen K et al.​ The CODAtwins project: the cohort description of COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins to study macro-environmental variation in genetic and environmental effects on anthropometric traits. Twin Research. May 27 2015.
It has been possible to build a global collaboration on continued research on the role of genes and environment in determining height and weight on the basis of around 200,000 twin pairs.

Det har vist sig muligt at opbygge et globalt samarbejde om fortsat udforskning af arvens og miljøets betydning for højde og vægt på ca. 200.000 tvillingepar. ​​

Sørensen TIA & Koch L.​ Er tiden inde til en genomisk revolution i det danske sundhedsvæsen? I – Opfordring til vurdering af den kliniske nyttevirkning. Ugeskr Læger [Debat] maj 8, 2015.

Den helt store udfordring i indførelse af hel-genomsekventering - kortlægning af den komplette arvemasse - i klinisk praksis bliver at påvise netto nyttevirkningen af denne procedure, både diagnostisk, prognostisk og terapeutisk. 

Zimmermann E et al. Is the adiposity-associated FTO gene variant related to all-cause mortality independent of adiposity? Meta-analysis of data from 169,551 Caucasian adults. Obes Rev. 2015;16:327-340.
The obesity gene, FTO, was in a previous study strongly associated with increased mortality independent of obesity, but this large-scale meta-analyses could not confirm this finding.

Fedme-genet, FTO, var i et tidligere studie stærkt forbundet med forøget dødelighed uanset fedmen, men dette store studie af mange delstudier kunne ikke bekræfte en sådan en sammenhæng mellem et højt indtag af sukkersødede drikke og udvikling af overvægt og fedme over 6 år blandt børn. Hvis man erstatter indtaget af sukkersødede drikke med vand eller mælk, ser det ud til at have en gunstig virkning på BMI.​

​​Zimmermann E et al.​ Body mass index in school-aged children and the risk of routinely diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adulthood: a prospective study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006998.
Body weight at the ages of 7-13 years is not related to risk of adult non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, children, who gain more than average in weight during these years, have a high risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease later in adult life. 

Kropstørrelse i alderen fra 7-13 år er ikke relateret til risiko for non-alkoholisk fedtlever sygdom som voksen. Derimod fandt vi, at børn med en vægtøgning større end gennemsnittet i løbet af disse år, havde en høj risiko for non-alkoholisk fedtlever sygdom i voksenlivet.​

​Updated June 24, 2015 - Birgitte M Skogstad

Redaktør