2013

Here you will find an English and ​a Danish summary of our publications from 2013

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Adegboye ARA et al. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults. NutrJ. 2013;12:e61

Among adult men and women, dietary calcium and vitamn D, and particularly calcium and vitamin D from dairy, may protect against dental caries by inhibiting formation of so-called plaque, formed by the bacteria responsible for caries development.

Nye data tyder på, at hos voksne påvirkes kostens kalk og D vitamin, specielt hvis det kommer fra mejeriprodukter, bakterierne på tænderne og beskytter således muligvis mod huller i tænderne.

Andersen CS et al. Prenatal exposures to perfluorinated chemicals and anthropometry at 7 years of age. Am J Epidemiol. 2013;178:921-927.
Fetal exposure to some chemicals in the maternal blood has been associated with lower birth weight and lower weight and body mass index in early infancy. However, in this study, these chemicals did not have any appreciable influence on their children’s anthropometry at 7 years of age.

Indholdet af visse kemikalier i blodet hos gravide kvinder er tidligere blevet vist at have en sammenhæng med en lavere fødselsvægt og lavere vægt og BMI i det første halve leveår hos barnet.  I dette studie fandt vi at disse kemikalier ikke havde indflydelse på barnets vægt, højde og BMI ved 7 års alderen.

Beekman M et al. Genome-wide linkage analysis for human longevity: Genetics of Healthy Ageing Study. Aging Cell. 2013;12:184-193.
Human longevity is a heritable trait. This study searched the genome for areas that may explain this heritability and confirmed previous findings that the APOE – a gene influencing synthesis of a protein that also links to some cholesterol component in blood – is related to longevity, but a few other areas of the genome was also found associated with longevity without being able to idnetify the specific genes.

Hvor længe man lever er delvist arveligt bestemt. Dette studie søgte at indkredse områder på arvemassen, som kunne ligge bag dette, og det blev herved bekræftet at APOE genet – et gen der også styrer dannelse af et protein, der i blodet er koblet til kolesterol – er relateret til livslængde, men fandt også enkelte andre områder på arvemassen forbundet med langt liv, dog uden at kunne udpege hvilke gener, der var involveret.

Berndt SI et al. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 11 new loci for anthropometric traits and provides insights into genetic architecture. Nat Genet. 2013;45:501-512.
Height and body weight is under genetic control and a large number of genetic variants have been found that are associated with individual differences in these traits in the general population, but many must be missing. This study searched for new genetic variants in the extremes of the the trait distribution and found 4 new ones for height and 7 new ones for obesity.

Højde og vægt er underkastet genetisk kontrol and et stort antal genetiske varianter, som er forbundet med disse egenskaber i den brede befolkning, men mange må mangle. Dette studie eftersøgte nye varianter i blandt de højeste og de laveste, og blandt de letteste og de tungeste, og fandt 4 nye varianter for højde og 7 ny for fedme.

Brahe LK et al. Influence of SNPs in nutrient-sensitive candidate genes and gene-diet interactions on blood lipids: the DiOGenes study. Br J Nutr. 2013;110:790-796.
Diet and weight loss may improve the blood lipid profile. This study showed that among a large number of genetic variantes related to blood lipids, one in the gene LPIN1 modified how dietary protein influenced the blood lipid, triglyceride, during weight loss maintenance.

Kosten og vægttab kan forbedre blodets fedtprofil. I dette studie fandtes een enkelt genetisk variant blandt mange med relation til blodets fedtstoffer at ændre på hvordan protein I kosten påvirker et af blodets fedtstoffer, det såkaldte triglycerid.

Browne J & Sørensen TIA. European  public health research in Horizon 2020 (Editorial). Eur J Public Health 2013;23:722.
As a preparation for the forthcoming research program for 2014-20 in EU, the EU Commission has asked a working group to make proposals for the public health program.

Som forberedelse af EU’s kommende forskningsprogram for perioden 2014-20 har EU kommissionen bedt en arbejdsgruppe komme med forslag til dette for folkesundhedvidenskaben.

Böhm A & Heitmann BL. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition in epidemiological studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67:S79-85.
Bioelectrical impedance analysis is a simple technique used to measure obesity and body composition. In this paper, we reveiw previously published literature for usefulness of the method and superiority to measuring obesity by BMI in epidemiological studies.

Bioelektrisk impedans er en metode der kan bruges til at måle fedme og kroppens sammensætning mht fedt of muskelmasse. Vi gennemgik tidligere publiceret litteratur for at vise at i populationsundersøgelser er metoden til måling af body mass index overlegen.

Cook MB et al. Childhood height and birth weight in relation to future prostate cancer risk: a cohort study based on the Copenhagen School Health Records Register. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013;22:2232-2240.
Height and birth weight may influence the risk of developing prostate cancer. Using data from boys in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, we found that an increased height at each age from 7 to 13 years was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in adulthood. Further, we found that a high birth weight seems to slightly increase the risk of prostate cancer.

Både højde og fødselsvægt synes at have betydning for risikoen for at udvikle prostatakræft. Fra data på drenge fra det Københavnske skolelægejournalregister fandt vi, at en øget højde i alderen 7-13 år var associeret med øget risiko for at udvikle prostatakræft i voksenlivet. Vi fandt desuden at en høj fødselsvægt muligvis øger risikoen for prostatakræft.

Cousminer DL et al. Genome-wide association and longitudinal analyses reveal genetic loci linking pubertal height growth, pubertal timing, and childhood adiposity. Hum Mol Genet. 2013;22:2735-2747.

Pubertal timing, pubertal growth and adiposity have a complex relationship that is under genetic influence. This study searched the genome for variants influencing these processes and found a series of 10 variants including the only one known before.

Pubertetens start, vækstmønster og relation til fedme er complex, men er I høj grad styret af generne. Dette studie søgte henover arvemassen efter bestemte genetiske varainter forbundet med disse forhold og fandt 10, inclusive den eneste allerede kendte.

Dhurandhar NV et al. Harnessing the beneficial properties of adipogenic microbes for improving human health [review] Obes Rev. 2013;14:721-735.
Sustained reduction of the risk of co-morbidities of obesity by weight loss has proven very difficult. Benficial effects of infection with so-called Adenovirus-36 (one of many common cold virus) and some types of bacteria in the gut seem to improve the metabolic status independent of weight loss, and may give leads to new treatments aiming at the risk reduction.

Det har vist sig meget vanskeligt at nedsætte risikoen for fedmens følgesygdomme på lang sigt ved vægttab. Infektioner med et bestemt af mange forkølelsesvirus (Adenovirus-36) og visse tarmbakterier er ledsaget af eb bedre risikoprofil hos de fede og giver der håb om at finde nye veje til behandling af fedme med formålet at nedsætte risikoen for følgesygdommene.

Elissen A et al. Is Europe putting theory into practice? A qualitative study of the level of self-management support in chronic care management approaches. BMC Health Services Research 2013;13:117. [Open Access].
European countries are both different and similar in providing information to patients with chronic disease about how to take care of him/herself. Similarities include: is that information provided by nurses and in general practice or family care clinics. The materials used and the organisation of these kinds of appointments are different.

Europæiske lande både ligner hinanden og er forskellige mht. hvordan kroniske patienter informeres om egen-omsorg. Fælles er at oplysninger givet af sygeplejersker og i almen praksis. Forskelligt er det materiale og organiseringen af informationer, der er givet til patienterne.

Ezekwe KA et al. Associations between initial change in physical activity level and subsequent change in regional body fat distributions. Obes Facts. 2013;6:552-560.
Abdominal leanness and gluteal fatness seem to carry health protection. We found that increased activity during work and leisure was associated with reduced subsequent 6-year changes in regional fat distribution for men and that increased work activity increased hip circumference among women.

Fedt om maven er skadeligt mens fedt på hofterne forbindes med sundhed. Vi undersøgte om ændringer i fysisk aktivitet i fritid og på arbejde påvirkede talje og hofte omkredsmålene  i de efterfølgende år, og fandt tendenser til at øget aktivitet ledte til reduceret taljeomfang hos mænd og øget hofteomfang hos kvinder.

Grzeskowiak LE et al. Prenatal exposure  to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and childhood overweight at 7 years of age. Ann Epidemiol. 2013;23:681-687.
The use if antidepressant agents during pregnancy may influence risk of overweight in the child irrespective of the underlying psychiatric illness. This study showed that only boys were at increased risk.

Brug af antidepressiv medicin under graviditeten kunne have indflydelse på barnets senere risiko for overvægt. Dette studie viste at dette kun gælder drengebørn.

Hall A et al. Dysfunctional oxidative phosphorylation makes malignant melanoma cells addicted to glycolysis driven by the V600EBRAF oncogene.Oncotarget. 2013;4:584-599.
(no summaries available)

Haugaard LK et al. Being an only or last-born child increases later risk of obesity. PLoS One 2013;8:e56357.
Enebørn har en øget risiko for fedme. Blandt søskende har den sidstfødte en forøget
risiko, og jo senere efternøler, jo større risiko.

Only children have an increased risk of obesity. Among siblings the last-born has an increased risk, which increases with the age difference to previous sibling.

Hvidtfeldt UA et al. Educational differences in postmenopausal breast cancer - Quantifying indirect effects through health behaviors, body mass index and reproductive patterns. PLoS One 2013;e78690.
High educational level is associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. This study showed that this is mediated by older age at first child-bearing and fewer pregnancies, higher alcohol intake, hormone therapy, and possibly physical inactivity, but not byrelation to body weight.

Højt uddannede kvinder har en højere risiko for brystkræft efter menopausen end lavt uddannede. Dette studie viser at det kan forklares ved højere alder ved første fødsel, færre fødsler, større alcohol indtagelse, og hormonbehandling, og muligvis fysisk inaktivitet, men ikke ved sammenhæng med kropsvægt.

Jacobsen MU et al. Fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight in European women and men. BrJ Nutr. 2013;109:353-562.
Intake of fish is an important source of n-3 polyunstaurated fatty acids, also called omega-3 fatty acids, and they are presumed to influence body weight regulation. This study, however, found no relation between fish intake and subsequent body weight changes.

Indtag af fisk, der er en vigtig kilde til de såkaldte n-3 polyumættede fedtsyrer, også kaldet omega-3 fedtsyrer, formodes at påvirke reguleringen af kropsvægten, men i dette studie var der ingen sammenhæng mellem indtag af fisk og senere vægtændinger.

Jacobsen R et al. Characteristics of COPD patients enrolled into rehabilitation programme in Copenhagen ISRN Pulmonology 2013, article ID 394042.
We studied whether COPD patients enrolled into a newly introduced rehabilitation programme in the municipality of Copenhagen differed from the rest of these patients, and found that the patients enrolled into the programme were younger, more frequently female and had higher fortune.  Thus, more effort should be made to motivate poor elderly male COPD patients to participate in available health promoting programmes provided by municipalities.

Vi undersøgte om KOL patienter der deltager i et nyt rehabiliteringsprogram i Københavns Kommune var anderledes end KOL patienter generelt og fandt at de var yngre, hyppigere kvinder, og havde en højere formue. Således bør der gøres en større indsats for at motivere de fattige ældre mandlige KOL-patienter til at deltage i tilgængelige sundhedsfremmende programmer som leveres i kommunerne.

Jacobsen R et al. The influence of early exposure to vitamin D for development of diseases later in life (review) BMC Public Health. 2013;13:515.
A new large project will examine the importance if additional vitamin D in pregnancy, whether it helps to protect against the development of chronic disease such as fractures, diabetes, and obesity.  The project is a societal experiment that examines whether adding vitamin D to margarine can help protect against the mentioned diseases. The study also compares vitamin D levels in the blood of newborns, between those who developed and did not develop the particular diseases later in life.

Et nyt større projekt der skal undersøge betydningen af vitamin D i fostertilstande for udvikling af kroniske sygdomme som fedme, diabetes og frakturer, er for nyligt blevet publiceret. Projektet baserer sig på et samfundseksperiment og undersøger betydningen af at berige margarine med vitamin D for udvikling af ovennævnte kroniske sygdomme. Projektet sammenligner også vitamin D i blodet fra de nyfødte, der senere udvikler kronisk sygdom og andre der ikke udvikler sygdom.

Jensen BW et al. Association between sweet drink intake and adiposity in Danish children participating in a long-term intervention study. Ped Obes. 2013;8:259-270.
Danish children, especially those from families with low socio-economic status, do generally not eat according to the official Danish recommendations. In the present study we examined if it was possible to affect the childrens' dietary intake via a school-based intervention. We found that children, especially from families with a short education, changed their intake of dietary fibres, protein, fat and saturated fatty acids in a more beneficial direction.

Danske børn, og især de der kommer fra familier med lav socioøkonomisk status, spiser generelt ikke efter sundhedsstyrelsens anbefalingerne. Vi undersøgte om en skole-baseret intervention kunne påvirke børnenes kostvalg og fandt, at børn, især fra familier med kort uddannelse, ændrede deres indtag af kostfibre, protein, fedt og mættet fedt i gunstig retning.

Jensen TK et al. High dietary intake of saturated fat is associated with reduced semen quality among 701 young Danish men from the general population. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;97:411-418.
Changes in diet over the past decades may be part of the explanation for the recently reported high frequency of subnormal human sperm counts. We found that a high intake of saturated fat, but not other types of fat, was associated with lower sperm concentration and total sperm count. Thus, a reduction in saturated fat intake may be beneficial for both general and reproductive health.

Dårlig sædkvalitet er medvirkende årsag til at op mod 50% af alle par kommer i fertilitetsbehandling. Kun få årsager til ringe sædkvalitet er kendte. Vi undersøgte kostens betydning for sædkvalitet og fandt at  et højt indtag af mættet fedt, men ikke andre typer fedt i kosten, hang sammen med både antal og koncentration af sædceller.

Jiang R et al. Chronic family stress moderates the association between a TOMM40 variant and triglyceride levels in two independent Caucasian samples. Biol Psychol. 2013;93:184-189.
A genetic variant in the geneTOMM40 influences blood triglycerides. This genetic variant modifies how chronic stress is related to the blood lipids.

En genetisk variant i et gen (TOMM40) har inflydelse på blodets indhold af fedtstoffet, triglyceride. Den genetiske variant modificerer inflydelsen af kronisk stress på blodfedtet.

Kjeldahl K et al. No genetic footprints of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in human plasma 1 H CPG NMR metabolic profiles. Metabolomics 2013 July 13 [Epub ahead of print]
Genetic variation in the FTO gene is associated with obesity but how this comes about remains unknown. In this study of multiple metabolites in serum, none were found to be associated with this genetic variant.

Forskelle i genet FTO er forbundet med rsiko for fedme, men hvordan det virker, vides endnu ikke. I dette studie blev et meget stort antal stoffer i blodet - såkaldte metabolitter - undersøgt, men ingen var forbundet med FTO genets varianter.

Knudsen VK et al. Maternal dietary glycemic load during pregnancy and gestational weight gain, birth weight and postpartum weight retention: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1471-1478.
Dietary glycaemic load has been related to obesity and other health outcomes. We examined associations between maternal dietary glycaemic load and weight gain during and after pregnancy for mother and child and found that glycaemic load may play a role for excessive gestational weight gain and post-partum weight retention, particularly for those women already overweight early in pregnancy.

Tidligere undersøgelser tyder på at kostens raffineringsgrad – det sk. glykæmiske load - øger risikoen for udvikling af fedme og diabetes. Vi undersøgte om kostens raffineringsgrad havde betydning for vægtudviklingen hos gravide og deres afkom, og fandt at især allerede overvægtige gravide kvinder, hvis kost var præget af høj raffineringsgrad, havde en øget risiko for at tage ekstra på både under og efter graviditeten.

Lanfer A et al. Does change in hip circumference predict cardiovascular disease and overall mortality in Danish and Swedish women? Obesity 2014;22:957-963.
Accumulating evidence consistently shows that small hip circumference is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease, diabetes and premature death. This study found a basal risk associated with small hip size which was, however, independent from changes in gluteofemoral body mass.

Tidligere studier har vist, at fedt på hofter og lår yder beskyttelse mod udvikling af hjertesygdom og tidlig død. Undersøgelsen kunne ikke dokumentere at ændringer i fedtmængden på hofterne over en 6 årig periode havde betydning for risiko for hjertesygdom eller livslængde.

Larsen SC et al. 24h urinary sodium excretion and subsequent change in weight, waist circumference and body composition. PLoS One. 2013;8:e69689.
We know that too much salt is bad for our blood pressure. We have examined if salt in diet also influences the development of obesity, waist circumference and the distribution of fat and muscle, and we found that a diet with a high salt content was associated with an increases fat mass and a decrease in muscle mass.

For meget salt er skidt for blodtrykket. Vi har undersøgt om salt i kosten også har betydning for udvikling af overvægt, taljemål samt kroppens fordeling af fedt og muskler, og fandt at en kost med et højt saltindhold var relateret til stigning i fedtmassen og reduktion i muskelmassen.

Lissner L et al. Monitoring the obesity epidemic into the 21st century - weighing the evidence. Obes Facts. (Editorial) 2013;6:561-565. [Open access]
Recent literature suggests that the obesity epidemic in adults, and particularly in children, has stabilized. However, a number of biases could explain these trends. The paper draws attention to these biases. It is concluded that, on the whole, the available trend data seem to stand up to scrutiny concerning the most plausible biases and interpretational errors.

Nylige studier tyder på at fedme-epidemien for tiden udvikler sig langsommere og er ved at flade ud. Der er imidlertid flere mulige årsager til at de tilgængelige oplysninger om fedmens udvikling er behæftet med fejl. Artiklen gennemgår disse mulige fejlkilder og konkluderer, at noget tyder på at fedme-epidemien faktisk tager sig en pause.

Lund AS et al. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation. Obes Facts. 2013;6:369-379.
Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, socalled omega-3 fatty acids primarily being supplied from fatty fish, is associated with lower degree of fatness, but not with less inflammation, as indicated by inflammatory markers in blood.

KostenS inhold af de n-3 polyumættede fedtsyrer, også kaldet omega-3 fedtsyrer, der overvejende stammer fra fede fisk, er forbundet med mindre fedme, men ikke med mindre af den kroniske betænelsestilstand, der ofte ledsager fedme, bedømt ud fra markører for dette i blodet.

Lund TB et al. Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans? - A critical discussion of two arguments against the use of animals in obesity research. J Med Ethics. 2013;6:396-379.
Animal research is widely accepted as a way to find tools to improve human health, but some argue that this is not acceptable with regard to obesity. This is based on false arguments about obesity being a condition people are responsible for themselves and that animal research distracts attention from what is supposed to be needed to cope with obesity – a better lifestyle.

Dyreforsøg er bredt accepteret som en vej til at finde metoder til forbedring af menneskets helbred, men nogle mener ikke det er acceptabelt for fedme. Dette er beroende på det falske argument at fedme er selvforskyldt og at dyureforsøg trækker opmærksomheden væk fra den formodede nødvendige forbedring af livsstilen.

Maslova E et al. Vitamin D intake in mid-pregnancy and child allergic disease -- a prospective study in 44,825 Danish mother-child pairs. BMC. 2013;13:199. [Open access].
A sufficient vitamin D intake during pregnancy may reduce the child's risk of
developing asthma. We found that extra vitamin D from diet and supplements during
pregnancy reduced the child's risk of asthma at 7 years of age, but not at 18 months. Our results thus suggest that there is a weak protective effect of high vitamin D intake of asthma in late, but not early childhood.

Tilstrækkeligt med vitamin D i den gravides kost kan muligvis begrænse barnets risiko for at udvikle Astma. Vi fandt at ekstra D-vitamin fra kost og kosttilskud under graviditeten nedsatte barnets risiko for astma i 7 års men ikke 18 månders alderen. Vores resultater tyder således på, at der er en svag beskyttende effekt af højt D-vitamin indtag på astma i sen, men ikke tidlig, barndom.

Morgen CS et al. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Danish infants, children and adolescents - Are we still on a plateau? PLoS One. 2013;8:e69860.
A levelling off in the prevalence of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity has been reported worldwide during the last decade. By using three different Danish dataset with data from 1998-2011, we found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in infancy, childhood and adolescence still are on a plateau, with adolescents.

I det sidste årti har resultater fra flere steder i verden vist at forekomsten af overvægt og fedme hos børn og unge er stagneret. Ved at bruge tre store danske databaser, fandt vi at forekomsten af overvægt og fedme hos spædbørn, børn og unge fra 1998 til 2011 fortsat er på samme niveau. Samtidig kunne det tyde på at forekomsten endda er faldende hos børn og unge.

Munger KL et al. Childhood body mass index and multiple sclerosis risk: a long-term cohort study. Mult Scler. 2013;19:1323-1329.
Obesity in adolescence is associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis later in life. This study showed that the increased risk is associated also with body weight of children at school age.

Fedme hos unge voksne er forbundet med øget risiko for dissemineret sklerose. Dette studie viser at den øgede risiko også er forbundet med højere vægt I barndommen I skolealderen.

Neumann T et al. Gold Standard Program for heavy smokers in a real-life setting. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:4186-99.
High-intensity smoking cessation programs generally lead to more continuous abstinence, however, lower rates of success have been reported among heavy smokers. We evaluated an intensive 6-week Gold Standard Program to identify modifiable factors associated with continuous abstinence. Attending the program with an individual format (vs. group/other); in a hospital setting (vs. pharmacy/municipality services); and being compliant were associated with abstinence.

Rygestop programmer er mindre effektive blandt storrygere. Vi fandt at individuelle snarere end gruppebaserede konsultationer, på hospital, snarere end i kommunalt og overholdelse af mødeaftaler forbedrede effekten af rygestopprogrammer blandt storrygere.

Neumann T et al. The Gold Standard Programme: smoking cessation interventions for disadvantaged smokers are effective in a real-life setting. Tob Control. 2013;22:e9 [Open Access].
Disadvantaged patients, defined as patients with a lower level of education and those receiving unemployment benefits, show lower continuous abstinence after smoking cessation. We found that promoting individual interventions among those with a low education may increase the effectiveness of GSP.

Rygestopinterventioner er generelt mindre effektive blandt personer fra lave socialklasser. Vi fandt at individuelle konsultationer snarere end gruppebaserede rygestopsessioner var mere effektive i forhold til at sikre effekt af rygestopprogrammer.

Olsen NJ et al. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. Results from the "Healthy Start" study. PLoS One 2013;8:e78974.

Oresic M et al. Prediction of non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease and liver fat content by serum nolecular lipids. Diabetologia. 2013;56:2266-2274.
Diagnosis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and measurement of the degree of fatty liver can be done by liver biopsy or advanced imaging technic. This study showed that changes in some specific fatty acids in blood were able to predict with reasonable accuracy how much fat there are in the liver, and diagnose this disease as well as other routinely available simple clinical and biochemical measures, but combining them did not futher improve the prediction.

Diagnose af non-alkoholisk fedtlever sygdom og bestemmelse af hvor meget fedt, der er I leveren kan gøres med leverbiopsi og med avanceret billedteknik. Dette studier viser at ændringer I bestemte fedtsyrer i blodet er forbundet med hvor meget fedt der er I lveren og de er lige så gode som andre kliniske og biokemiske prøver til at forudsige denne sygdom med rimelig sikkerhed, men det hjælper ikke at kombinere dem med de simple prøver.

Papadaki A et al. A multicentre weight loss study using a low-calorie diet over 8 weeks: regional differences in efficacy across eight European cities. Swiss Med Wkly. 2013;143:w13721.

Petersen L et al. Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide - an adoption study of siblings. PLoS One. 2013;8:e77973.
The risk of suicide shows a familial aggregation. This study showed that the reason for this is a genetic predisposition rather than the family experiences, likely independent of psychiatric illness.

Risikoen for at begå selvmord går i familier. Dette studie viser at dette skyldes en arvelig tilbøjelighed snarere end oplevelserne i familierne, og den arvelige tilbøjelighed er nok uafhængig af psykisk lidelse.

Rasmussen M et al. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for smoking cessation in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:3653-3666.
Smoking cessation success is lower among heavy smokers. The aim was to identify modifiable factors associated with continuous abstinence. Attending gold standard programs with an individual format (vs. group/other); in a hospital setting (vs. pharmacy/municipality services); and being compliant (attending the planned meetings) were associated with abstinence.

Storrygere er svære at få til at holde op med at ryge. Undersøgelsen undersøgte, hvad der kan få storrygere til at stoppe, og fandt at individuel snarere end gruppebaseret rådgivning (gennemført i hospitalsregi snarere end på apotek eller i kommunen) samt des flere møder der deltages i øger successen af rygestopprogrammet.

Rokholm B et al. Modifiable environmental influences on body mass index shared by young adult brothers. Int J Obes. 2013;37:211-215.
Most of the familial resemblance in body weight in adults is genetic, and there is doubt about the sustained influence of the family rearing environment. This study showed that resemblance in BMI among young adult brothers is greater the closer to each other they are born, ranging from twins through many years, which indicates that there are aspects of the family environment that contribute to their resemblance.

Den familære lighed i kropsvægten hos voksne skyldes helt overvejende den genetiske indflydelse, og der er tvivl om familiemiljøet fra barndommen har nogen vedvarende indflydelse. Dette studie viser at jo længere afstand der er i fødselstidspunkt – strækkende sig fra tvillinger til mange år – mellem brødre, vejet som unge voksne, jo mindre lighed er der, hvilket tyder på en vis indlfydelse af familiemiljøet.

Steffen A et al. Development and validation of a risk score predicting substantial weight gain over 5 years in middle-aged European men and women. PLoS One. 2013;8:e67429.
Prevention of major weight gain in adults may be based on identification of a target group at high risk. This study showed that a prediction algorithm based on a series of possible risk factors of weight gain, assessable by questionnaires, could exclude a large number of people from being at risk, but was far less accurate in identifying those at risk among those not excluded.

Forebyggelse af vægtstigning hos voksne kunne baseres på dem med særlig høj risiko for vægtstigning. Dette studie viser at en sammnesætning af række mulige risikofaktorer for vægtstigning, som kan fås fra spørgeskemaer, kan udelukke en forøget risiko hos en meget stor andel af befolkningen, men det er ikke muligt med nogen rimelig sikkerhed at udpege hvem der er i særlig høj risiko blandt dem, som ikke er udelukket.

SteggerJG et al. Interaction between obesity and the NFKB1 - 94ins/delATTG promoter polymorphism in relation to incident acute coronary syndrome: a follow up study in three independent cohorts. PLoS One. 2013;8:e63004.
We found no substantial difference in the association between obesity and heart
attack across individuals with different genes related to the development of heart disease.

Vi fandt ingen betydelig forskel i sammenhængen mellem fedme og blodprop i hjertet for individer med forskellige gener relateret til udviklingen af blodprop i hjertet.

Stocks T et al. Change in proportional protein intake in a 10-week energy-restricted low- or high-fat diet, in relation to changes in body size and metabolic factors. Obes Facts. 2013;6:217-227.
Dietary protein may influence body weight beyond the caloric value. This study showed that obese individual,s on a weight-reducing diet with either low-fat/high-carb or high-fat/low-carb, had a greater weight loss and improvement of blood lipids with the low-fat/high-carb diet if it was combined with an increase in dietary protein.

Kostens proteinindhold påvirker kropsvægten på forskellige made udover proteinets kaloriske værdi. Dette studie viser at fede, som er på slankekur med enten lavt-fedt/højt-kulhydrat eller højt-fedt/lavt-kulhydrat har et større vægttab og en bedre fedtstofprofil i blodet ved en lavt-fedt/højt-kulhydrat diæt, hvis den kombineres med øget proteinindhold.

Stocks T et al. TFAP2B-dietary protein and glycemic index interactions and weight maintenance after weight loss in the DiOGenes trial. Hum Hered. 2013;75:213-219.
Following dietary weight loss, a diet high in protein and low in glycemic index – a measure of the diet’s ability to elevate blood sugar – provides a better weight maintenance than a diet low in protein and high in glycemic index. This study showed that the beneficial effect of high protein was obtained only when a variant in one of the genes associated with obesity (TFAP2B) was absent, whereas this genetic variant had no influence on the effect of glycemic index.

Efter diætetisk vægttab fatsholdes vægttabet bedre med en kost med meget protein og lavt glykæmisk index – et mål for kostens even til at øge blodsukkeret – end en kost med lavt protein og højt glykæmsik index. Dette studie viser at der kun er fordele ved højt protein hos personer uden en hyppigt forekommende genetisk variant der er forbundet med let øget risiko ofr fedme (TFAP2B), medens denne variant ikke havde inflydelse på virkningen af kostens glykæmiske index.

van Vught AJ et al. Dietary arginine and linear growth: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study. Br J Nutr. 2013;109:1031-1039.
There seems to be a dose-dependent physiological role of habitual protein intake,
and specifically arginine intake, on linear growth in normally growing children. Nuts, shellfish, spinich, lentils and meat are good sources of arginine.

Undersøgelsen viste at højdevæksten hos børn er under indflydelse af proteinindtaget - højere indtag af protein, og især aminosyren arginin i kosten des bedre vækst. Nødder, skaldyr, spinat, linser og kød er gode kilder til arginin.

Verdich C et al. Fedme på dagsordenen i EU's Horizon 2020. [editorial] Ugeskr Læger. 2013;175:805.
Obesity should be on the agenda of the forthcoming research program in EU for 2014-20, entitled HORIZON 2020.

Fedme bør være på dagsordnen I det kommende forskningsprogram I EU for 2014-20, kaldet HORIZON 2020.

Virkus RA et al. The relation between birth weight and hypertension. A study among Danish nurses. Health. 2013;5:16-22. [Open access].
Low birth weight is associated with hypertension in adult life. Normal blood pressure was seen particularly for those with normal birth and childhood weight.

At blive født med en lav fødselsvægt (<3000g) øger risikoen for at få forhøjet blodtryk som voksen. De med normalt blodtryk havde størst sandsynlighed for at være født normalvægtige og have normalvægt under opvæksten.

von Scholten BJ et al. Aetiological factors behind adipose tissue inflammation: an unexplored research area. (Review) Public Health Nutr. 2013;16:27-35.
Obesity is associated with a weak chronic inflammation fo the adipose tissue, which may paly a role in the development of the metabolic co-morbidities. A review of the literature shows that it is an open question what the causes are of this inflammation.

Fedme ledsages ofte af en svag kronisk betændelse I fedtvævet, som menes at have betydning for opståen af følgesygdommene til fedme. Det er et åbent spørgsmål, hvad der er årsag til denne betændelsestilstand, viser en gennemgang af litteraturen.

Westenhoefer J et al. Cognitive and weight-related correlates of flexible and rigid restrained eating behaviour. Eating Behav. 2013;14:69-72.
(no summaries available)

Willmer M et al. Surgically induced interpregnancy weight loss and prevalence of overweight and obesity in offspring. PLoS ONE. 2013;82247.
Modsat forventningen synes fedmekirurgi hos kvinder ikke at forebygge at deres børn bliver overvægtige.

Opposite to expectation, bariatric surgery in women does not seem to protect the kids from developing obesity.

Østergaard JN et al. Combined influence of leisure time physical activity and hip circumference on all-cause mortality.Obesity. 2013;21:E78-E85.
Both wide hips and physical activity seem related to good health and longevity. We found that being physically active counterbalanced some of the hazardous effects of a small hip circumference.

Smalle hofter og fysisk inaktivitet øger begge risikoen for sygdom og død. Vi fandt at et højt fysisk aktivitetsniveau synes at kunne eliminere en del af den øgede helbredsrisiko, som ses hos personer med smalle hofter.

Miscellaneous

Browne J & Sørensen TIA. European public health research in Horizon 2020 (Editorial). Eur J Public Health 2013;23:722.
As a preparation for the forthcoming research program fr 2014-20 in EU, the EU Commission has asked a working group to make proposals for the public health program.

Som forberedelse af EU’s store kommende forskningsprogram for perioden 2014-20, har EU kommissionen bedt en arbejdsgruppe komme med forslag til dette for folkesundhedvidenskaben.

Sørensen TIA, Pedersen BK, Sandbæk A, Overvad K (eds). Skal overvægtige voksne tabe sig? Rapport fra Vidensråd for Forebyggelse 2013 pp 1-84.
Since overweight and obesity is associated with increased mortality, it is expected that weight loss will reduce the mortality. To the contrary, several studies show that intended weight loss among overweight people is associated with increased mortality, whereas there is no chnage in mortality among obese who lose weight. Weight loss may have both beneficial and harmful effetcs, and the balance between them may determine the outcome.

Da overvægt og fedme er forbundet med øget dødelighed ville man vente at vægttab ville nedsætte dødeligheden. Helt modsat har det vist sig at et villet vægttab hos overvægtige følges af øget dødelighed mens det hos fede ikke ændrer dødeligheden. Vægttab har nok både gavnlige og skadelige virkninger, og slutresultatet kan afhænge af balancen mellem disse virkninger.

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